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less命令反复查看文件内容

系统集成 盛行 8年前 (2014-04-12) 1540次浏览 已收录 0个评论 扫描二维码
文章目录
[隐藏]

1.释义

反复查看文件内容(显示文件内容后可以上下翻动查看)

2.系统帮助

SUMMARY OF LESS COMMANDS

      Commands marked with * may be preceded by a number, N.
      Notes in parentheses indicate the behavior if N is given.
      A key preceded by a caret indicates the Ctrl key; thus ^K is ctrl-K.

  h  H                 Display this help.
  q  :q  Q  :Q  ZZ     Exit.
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                           MOVING

  e  ^E  j  ^N  CR  *  Forward  one line   (or N lines).
  y  ^Y  k  ^K  ^P  *  Backward one line   (or N lines).
  f  ^F  ^V  SPACE  *  Forward  one window (or N lines).
  b  ^B  ESC-v      *  Backward one window (or N lines).
  z                 *  Forward  one window (and set window to N).
  w                 *  Backward one window (and set window to N).
  ESC-SPACE         *  Forward  one window, but don't stop at end-of-file.
  d  ^D             *  Forward  one half-window (and set half-window to N).
  u  ^U             *  Backward one half-window (and set half-window to N).
  ESC-)  RightArrow *  Left  one half screen width (or N positions).
  ESC-(  LeftArrow  *  Right one half screen width (or N positions).
  F                    Forward forever; like "tail -f".
  r  ^R  ^L            Repaint screen.
  R                    Repaint screen, discarding buffered input.
        ---------------------------------------------------
        Default "window" is the screen height.
        Default "half-window" is half of the screen height.
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                          SEARCHING

  /pattern          *  Search forward for (N-th) matching line.
  ?pattern          *  Search backward for (N-th) matching line.
  n                 *  Repeat previous search (for N-th occurrence).
  N                 *  Repeat previous search in reverse direction.
  ESC-n             *  Repeat previous search, spanning files.
  ESC-N             *  Repeat previous search, reverse dir. & spanning files.
  ESC-u                Undo (toggle) search highlighting.
  &pattern          *  Display only matching lines
        ---------------------------------------------------
        A search pattern may be preceded by one or more of:
        ^N or !  Search for NON-matching lines.
        ^E or *  Search multiple files (pass thru END OF FILE).
        ^F or @  Start search at FIRST file (for /) or last file (for ?).
        ^K       Highlight matches, but don't move (KEEP position).
        ^R       Don't use REGULAR EXPRESSIONS.
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                           JUMPING

  g  <  ESC-< * Go to first line in file (or line N). G >  ESC->       *  Go to last line in file (or line N).
  p  %              *  Go to beginning of file (or N percent into file).
  t                 *  Go to the (N-th) next tag.
  T                 *  Go to the (N-th) previous tag.
  {  (  [           *  Find close bracket } ) ].
  }  )  ]           *  Find open bracket { ( [.
  ESC-^F    *  Find close bracket .
  ESC-^B    *  Find open bracket  
        ---------------------------------------------------
        Each "find close bracket" command goes forward to the close bracket 
          matching the (N-th) open bracket in the top line.
        Each "find open bracket" command goes backward to the open bracket 
          matching the (N-th) close bracket in the bottom line.

  m            Mark the current position with .
  '            Go to a previously marked position.
  ''                   Go to the previous position.
  ^X^X                 Same as '.
        ---------------------------------------------------
        A mark is any upper-case or lower-case letter.
        Certain marks are predefined:
             ^  means  beginning of the file
             $  means  end of the file
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                        CHANGING FILES

  :e [file]            Examine a new file.
  ^X^V                 Same as :e.
  :n                *  Examine the (N-th) next file from the command line.
  :p                *  Examine the (N-th) previous file from the command line.
  :x                *  Examine the first (or N-th) file from the command line.
  :d                   Delete the current file from the command line list.
  =  ^G  :f            Print current file name.
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                    MISCELLANEOUS COMMANDS

  -              Toggle a command line option [see OPTIONS below].
  --             Toggle a command line option, by name.
  _              Display the setting of a command line option.
  __             Display the setting of an option, by name.
  +cmd                 Execute the less cmd each time a new file is examined.

  !command             Execute the shell command with $SHELL.
  |Xcommand            Pipe file between current pos & mark X to shell command.
  v                    Edit the current file with $VISUAL or $EDITOR.
  V                    Print version number of "less".
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                           OPTIONS

        Most options may be changed either on the command line,
        or from within less by using the - or -- command.
        Options may be given in one of two forms: either a single
        character preceded by a -, or a name preceded by --.

  -?  ........  --help
                  Display help (from command line).
  -a  ........  --search-skip-screen
                  Search skips current screen.
  -A  ........  --SEARCH-SKIP-SCREEN
                  Search starts just after target line.
  -b [N]  ....  --buffers=[N]
                  Number of buffers.
  -B  ........  --auto-buffers
                  Don't automatically allocate buffers for pipes.
  -c  -C  ....  --clear-screen --CLEAR-SCREEN
                  Repaint by clearing rather than scrolling.
  -d  ........  --dumb
                  Dumb terminal.
  -D [xn.n]  .  --color=xn.n
                  Set screen colors. (MS-DOS only)
  -e  -E  ....  --quit-at-eof  --QUIT-AT-EOF
                  Quit at end of file.
  -f  ........  --force
                  Force open non-regular files.
  -F  ........  --quit-if-one-screen
                  Quit if entire file fits on first screen.
  -g  ........  --hilite-search
                  Highlight only last match for searches.
  -G  ........  --HILITE-SEARCH
                  Don't highlight any matches for searches.
  --old-bot
                  Revert to the old bottom of screen behavior.
  -h [N]  ....  --max-back-scroll=[N]
                  Backward scroll limit.
  -i  ........  --ignore-case
                  Ignore case in searches that do not contain uppercase.
  -I  ........  --IGNORE-CASE
                  Ignore case in all searches.
  -j [N]  ....  --jump-target=[N]
                  Screen position of target lines.
  -J  ........  --status-column
                  Display a status column at left edge of screen.
  -k [file]  .  --lesskey-file=[file]
                  Use a lesskey file.
  -K            --quit-on-intr
                  Exit less in response to ctrl-C.
  -L  ........  --no-lessopen
                  Ignore the LESSOPEN environment variable.
  -m  -M  ....  --long-prompt  --LONG-PROMPT
                  Set prompt style.
  -n  ........  --line-numbers
                  Don't use line numbers.
  -N  ........  --LINE-NUMBERS
                  显示行号
  -o [file]  .  --log-file=[file]
                  Copy to log file (standard input only).
  -O [file]  .  --LOG-FILE=[file]
                  Copy to log file (unconditionally overwrite).
  -p [pattern]  --pattern=[pattern]
                  Start at pattern (from command line).
  -P [prompt]   --prompt=[prompt]
                  Define new prompt.
  -q  -Q  ....  --quiet  --QUIET  --silent --SILENT
                  Quiet the terminal bell.
  -r  -R  ....  --raw-control-chars  --RAW-CONTROL-CHARS
                  Output "raw" control characters.
  -s  ........  --squeeze-blank-lines
                  Squeeze multiple blank lines.
  -S  ........  --chop-long-lines
                  Chop (truncate) long lines rather than wrapping.
  -t [tag]  ..  --tag=[tag]
                  Find a tag.
  -T [tagsfile] --tag-file=[tagsfile]
                  Use an alternate tags file.
  -u  -U  ....  --underline-special  --UNDERLINE-SPECIAL
                  Change handling of backspaces.
  -V  ........  --version
                  Display the version number of "less".
  -w  ........  --hilite-unread
                  Highlight first new line after forward-screen.
  -W  ........  --HILITE-UNREAD
                  Highlight first new line after any forward movement.
  -x [N[,...]]  --tabs=[N[,...]]
                  Set tab stops.
  -X  ........  --no-init
                  Don't use termcap init/deinit strings.
  -y [N]  ....  --max-forw-scroll=[N]
                  Forward scroll limit.
  -z [N]  ....  --window=[N]
                  Set size of window.
  -" [c[c]]  .  --quotes=[c[c]]
                  Set shell quote characters.
  -~  ........  --tilde
                  Don't display tildes after end of file.
  -# [N]  ....  --shift=[N]
                  Horizontal scroll amount (0 = one half screen width)
      ........  --no-keypad
                  Don't send termcap keypad init/deinit strings.
      ........  --follow-name
                  The F command changes files if the input file is renamed.
      ........  --use-backslash
                  Subsequent options use backslash as escape char.


 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                          LINE EDITING

        These keys can be used to edit text being entered 
        on the "command line" at the bottom of the screen.

 RightArrow                       ESC-l     Move cursor right one character.
 LeftArrow                        ESC-h     Move cursor left one character.
 ctrl-RightArrow  ESC-RightArrow  ESC-w     Move cursor right one word.
 ctrl-LeftArrow   ESC-LeftArrow   ESC-b     Move cursor left one word.
 HOME                             ESC-0     Move cursor to start of line.
 END                              ESC-$     Move cursor to end of line.
 BACKSPACE                                  Delete char to left of cursor.
 DELETE                           ESC-x     Delete char under cursor.
 ctrl-BACKSPACE   ESC-BACKSPACE             Delete word to left of cursor.
 ctrl-DELETE      ESC-DELETE      ESC-X     Delete word under cursor.
 ctrl-U           ESC (MS-DOS only)         Delete entire line.
 UpArrow                          ESC-k     Retrieve previous command line.
 DownArrow                        ESC-j     Retrieve next command line.
 TAB                                        Complete filename & cycle.
 SHIFT-TAB                        ESC-TAB   Complete filename & reverse cycle.
 ctrl-L                                     Complete filename, list all.

3.示例

查看file.txt文件内容

less file.txt

同时打开并浏览多文件

less filename1.txt filename2.txt

4.按键

4.1.向下滚动

回车键:向下滚动一行
d:向下滚动半页
空格键:向下滚动一页

4.2.向上滚动

y:向上滚动一行
u:向上滚动半页
b:向上翻一页

4.3.向上向下搜索

/:使用一个模式进行搜索,并定位到下一个匹配的文本
n::向后查找下一个匹配的文本
N::向前查找前一个匹配的文本
?::使用模式进行搜索,并定位到前一个匹配的文本

4.4.全屏导航

ctrl+f:向下滚动一屏
ctrl+b:向上滚动一屏
ctrl+d:向下滚动半屏
ctrl+u:向上滚动半屏

4.5.单行导航

j:向上移动一行
k:向下移动一行

4.6.其它导航

G:移动到最后一行
g:移动到第一行

4.7.编辑文件

v:进入编辑模式,使用配置的编辑器编辑当前文件

4.8.标记导航

当使用less查看大文件时,可以在任何一个位置作标记,可以通过命令导航到标有特定标记的文本位置。

ma:使用a标记文本的当前位置
'a:导航到标记a处
:e:输入:e之后左下角会变为Examine:,然后在后面输入完整的文件路径即可打开显示文件内容
当打开多个文件时,使用如下命令在多个文件之间切换
:n浏览下一个文件
:p浏览前一个文件

4.9.帮助/退出

h:显示帮助界面
q/Q/ZZ:退出


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盛行
关于作者:
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